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American Revolution | American War of Independence

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photo, Bear Mountain Bridge, photo Popolopen Creek, Hudson River Valley,  Appalachian Trail, bridge, Popolopen Suspension Bridge,  Popolopen Creek Suspension Footbridge,  Hudson River, suspension foot bridge,  Fort Montgomery Popolopen Creek at Bear Mountain "Scenic Hudson Valley"

 
  Click to enlarge photo of Popolopen Creek from Bear Mountain Bridge.

Click to enlarge photo of Popolopen Creek from the Bear Mountain Bridge The Bear Mountain Bridge offers spectacular views of the Hudson River Valley. The bridge's roadway has eight-foot-wide shoulders for pedestrians and cyclists and incorporates the Maine-to-Georgia Appalachian Trail. Crossing the bridge on foot offers magnificent views, wonderful photo opportunities, and an invigorating walk.

On the walkway facing northeast, you can see 3 bridges from the Bear Mountain Bridge: the Popolopen Suspension Bridge, the Popolopen Creek Suspension Footbridge, and the train tracks. These bridges cross Popolopen Creek. Popolopen Creek at Bear Mountain  Scenic Hudson Valley  more . . .
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 Rockland County American Revolution | American War of Independence

American Revolution, cause of the Revolution, The American War of Independence, history, historians, historical books, Military History, United States Army, American Revolution - Causes, Stamp, Sugar Acts, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts American Revolution - 1: Causes of the Revolution

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 1: Causes of the Revolution  more . . .

American Revolution, American War of Independence, French Count de Rochambeau, battle at Yorktown, Treaty of Paris, Continental Army, Continental Congress, Redcoats, Paul Revere, Revolution, Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill American Revolution - 2: Outbreak of the War

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 2: Outbreak of the War  more . . .

American Revolution, American War of Independence, battle at Yorktown, Treaty of Paris, Historical works, Continental Army, Bunker Hill, George Washington, Washington, Continental service, Continental Congress, American Military History American Revolution - 3: Formation of the Continental Army

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 3: Formation of the Continental Army  more . . .

American Revolution, American War of Independence, Treaty of Paris, Gen. Richard Montgomery, Col. Benedict Arnold, American army, Revolution American Revolution - 4: Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 4: Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston  more . . .

The American Revolution, American War of Independence, War of Independence, Continental Army, 1777-1783, new nation, not worth a Continental, American Military History American Revolution - 5: The New Nation

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 5: The New Nation  more . . .

American War of Independence, 1777-1783, War of the Revolution, historians, American war, Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox, Daniel Morgan, Benedict Arnold, Continental Army, Yorktown, militia, Continentals, Winning of Independence American Revolution - 6: Winning of Independence 1777-1783

 
  The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come. American Revolution - 6: Winning of Independence 1777-1783  more . . .
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Battles of the American Revolution, Battle of Stony Point, Stony Point, New York, Stony Point Battlefield,   Revolutionary War, battles, Hudson River, museum, children's activities, Stony Point Lighthouse, Attractions at Stony Point Battlefield American Revolution - Stony Point Battlefield "State Historic Site"

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  Battles of the American Revolution
Battle of Stony Point
Date: July 16th, 1779
Between: British against the American Continental Army
Location: Stony Point, New York
American Revolution - Stony Point Battlefield  State Historic Site  website and more . . .

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American Revolution
American War of Independence
Hudson River Valley

The American Revolution, also known as the American War of Independence, spanned eight long years of fighting and political negotiations between Britain and her colonies. On October 19, 1781, the Americans, with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come.

Two years later, in September, 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed and the former 13 colonies were recognized as an independent nation; the United States of America was born.

Read about the American Revolution from different perspectives, written at different times in history, by different historians. Historical works used as a source for this section, may be accessed online and read in its entirety.

The American Revolution
Learn about The American Revolution and its several phases, including:

  • Causes of the American Revolution

  • Outbreak of the American Revolution

  • Formation of the Continental Army

  • The Invasion of Canada and Fall of Boston

  • The New Nation

  • The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783

Summary of The American Revolution and its impact on the Hudson River Valley
The American Revolution was a conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern shores of North America, and their mother country, Great Britain. The American Revolution, also known in history as the "American War of Independence", lasted from 1775 to 1783. Eventually, the colonies won the war against the British and became a separate nation called "The United States of America". The American victory over the British ended two centuries of British rule over most of the North American Colonies, resulting in the formation of the United States of America.

One of the causes of the American Revolution can be traced to the end of the French and Indian War, 1755 - 1762; fought in Europe, India and the West Indies. Britain's victory in the French and Indian War, forced the French out of Canada, thereby allowing the British to assume government of the French population. With the additional territory won from France, Britain's enormous national debt was increased. The British victory also released the American colonies from the threat of a French invasion.

In an attempt to relieve Britain of its financial burden, British Parliament decided that the American Colonists would have to help pay for their own defense, despite the fact that a French invasion was no longer a real threat. Toward this end, British Parliament passed the first of several tax laws, including the Stamp Act, which taxed all paper products in the colonies. The Americans declared it was unfair to tax them when they had no representation in Parliament, and protests eventually escalated to open hostilities in 1775, when the British Regulars fired on the Minutemen in Lexington, Massachusetts.

Battles of the American Revolution
The American Revolution started in 1775 when the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt in Boston at the Battle of Concord and Lexington, April 19, 1775. The "fighting" in the American Revolution ended in Virginia with the Battle of Yorktown, September 28th to October 19, 1781; where General George Washington defeated the army of Lord Cornwallis, bringing victory to the Americans and an end to the Revolutionary War.

The years between saw many battles in the Hudson River Valley that served as a strategic area of defense for the American revolutionaries. The Hudson River, a highway between revolutionary forts and encampments in the Hudson Highlands, was used by the British to sail large numbers of British and German (Hessian) troops to attack the American encampments and forts.

The American Revolutionary battles of Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton on October 6, 1777 were fought early in this long and difficult conflict. Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton were built on both shores of the Popolopen Creek, which empties into the Hudson River a few miles above the first chain. In a further attempt to stop the British forces from invading and controlling this important waterway, the revolutionary forces "chained" an area of the Hudson south of West Point and north of Bear Mountain in what is known today as the hamlet of Manitou. The Americans placed the first Chain across the Hudson River in an attempt to further support the Hudson Highlands. Later in the war, a second chain that was never tried, was successfully installed further north, at West Point.

Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton became the battleground of two fierce battles in the American Revolution. On October 6, 1777, approximately 700 American troops, comprised of 300 Continental soldiers, 100 artillerymen and 300 militiamen defended the "twin" forts against 2100 Loyalist, Hessian, and British regulars led by Sir Henry Clinton.

Although these two battles were won by the British; who then destroyed both forts and broke the first chain across the Hudson River; the battles sufficiently delayed British reinforcements from joining Burgoyne in the upper Hudson Valley. This allowed time for the Americans to gain desperately needed militia reinforcements, culminating in the defeat of the British in Saratoga with the surrender of General Burgoyne.

"To aid Lieutenant General John Burgoyne's British army stalled at Saratoga, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New York with 3,000 British, German, and Loyalist soldiers and a flotilla of warships. On the morning of October 6, 1777, Clinton landed 2,100 of his men on the west side of the Hudson River near Stony Point. This force followed a narrow trail through the mountains, where they ran into a party of 30 men sent from Fort Clinton to detect the British advance. After beating the Americans back, Sir Henry Clinton sent 900 men around Bear Mountain to attack Fort Montgomery. The rest would wait to attack Fort Clinton until the first group had reached Fort Montgomery."

On October 19, 1781, the Americans with the help of French troops under the French Count de Rochambeau, won a major battle at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis, leader of the British troops, surrendered 7,000 men. However, the final struggle of the American War of Independence was yet to come.

Two years later, in September of 1783, after much diplomacy, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Great Britain signed the treaty in which the former 13 colonies were recognized as an independent nation; the United States of America was born.

History of the American Revolution
Following, are brief excerpts about the American War of Independence. These write-ups cover different sources from different periods of time. Each historical write-up focuses on different aspects of the American Revolution.

The following material is sourced from: The Everything American Revolution Book by Daniel P. Murphy, Ph.D. (2008) F+W Publications, Inc., MA.

    "The English colonies were unique in the new World. The Spanish and French colonies were governed by viceroys and governors who reported directly to their monarchs. Spanish and French colonists were unable to develop representative institutions. By contrast, the English colonies were largely self-governing. From an early date, the English colonists were able to establish legislatures that wielded real authority in local matters. This long-established tradition of American political autonomy lay at the heart of the dispute over taxation by the British government following the French and Indian War. . .

    "By seventeenth and eighteenth century standards, the original thirteen colonies were the most democratic polities in the world. The first Virginia House of Burgesses was elected by all males seventeen years of age and older, only later was the vote restricted to landowners. . . On average the property qualification to vote meant possession of fifty acres of land or property valued at 50 pounds sterling. Probably 50 percent of men in the south and 75% of men in the north could vote."

The following material is sourced from Our Country, Published in 1877 as "A Household History of the United States for All Readers," From the Discovery of America to the Present Time. Volume Two, By Benson J. Lossing, LL.D., (3 vols. New York: Johnson & Bailey, 1894)
    Time and Place: 1775, British Ministers in Parliament
    "There was now much fluttering among the ministers. Lord North, to the astonishment of everybody, submitted a sort of conciliatory plan that pleased nobody, yet he adroitly carried it through. Other plans, more favorable to the Americans, were offered and rejected. Franklin's "Hints" had been considered by the ministry, and propositions had been made to him which were so much short of justice that he replied, "While Parliament claims the right of altering American constitutions at pleasure, there can be no agreement, for we are rendered unsafe in English privilege." When it was suggested that an agreement was necessary for America, as it would be "so easy for Britain to burn all their seaport towns," the philosopher answered bravely: "My little property consists of houses in those towns; you may make bonfires of them whenever you please: the fear of losing them will never alter my resolution to resist, to the last, the claim of Parliament.

    "The British government, by its acts, had now virtually declared war against the English-American colonists as rebels. Abandoning all hope of reconciliation, Franklin returned to America in the spring of 1775, and entered vigorously upon the prosecution of the war that soon afterward broke out.

    "In the early part of 1775, the British government had proclaimed Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. and provided means for suppressing that rebellion by force of arms. The fulmination of wrathful threats against that province was intended for the ears of her sister colonies, as well as for her own. They had interest in common. They were making resistance to oppression in common; and they were resolved to stand united for the common defense. To call Massachusetts a 'rebel,' was to call all the other colonies 'rebels.' So they all felt. Joseph Hawley had said in Massachusetts, when viewing the impending crisis: 'We must fight!' Patrick Henry, in Virginia, answered 'Amen!' with vehemence; and these words from the head and heart of resistance to oppression, were echoed back from all the provinces in the early part of 1775. For ten years the people of those provinces had pleaded, remonstrated, and worked in vain endeavors to obtain justice for themselves and their posterity . . . . At length the united colonies came to the solemn conclusion - 'We must fight,' and prepared for the dire necessity. The war for independence that ensued was not a war of revolution on the part of the Americans. It was a war by the Americans against the arch revolutionist King George and his ministers - a war by the Americans for the defense of their liberties and free institutions which the government of Great Britain sought to destroy."

The following material is sourced from:
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2009
    "In the fall of 1775 the British government decided to use overwhelming military force to crush the American revolt. The task looked easy. England, Wales, and Scotland had a combined population of about 9 million, compared with 2.5 million in the 13 rebel colonies, nearly 20 percent of whom were black slaves. Militarily, Britain was clearly superior, with a large standing army and the financial resources to hire additional troops, and the most powerful navy in the world. The British government also counted on mobilizing thousands of Loyalists in America and Native Americans who were hostile to white expansion.

    "Nonetheless, the Americans had a number of important advantages. They were fighting on their own territory, close to the sources of supply and amid a mostly friendly population. In addition, the Patriots had some resourceful military leaders, who had been tested in the French and Indian War. Finally, later in the war, the rebellious colonies received crucial aid from France and Spain. This assistance offset British superiority in wealth and military power, and made possible a clear-cut American victory. However, few of these American advantages were obvious when the war began.

    "Throughout the war, one of the main challenges facing the Americans was maintaining a credible army. Washington’s main Continental Army never had more than 24,000 active-duty troops, although Congress promised to raise a force at least three times that size. In addition, the army was poorly supplied and short on weapons and food. Early in the war General Philip Schuyler of New York complained that his men were “weak in numbers, dispirited, naked, destitute of provisions, without camp equipage, with little ammunition, and not a single piece of cannon.” The situation did not improve during the course of the war. Because of the meager financial support provided by Congress and the American people, the Continental Army almost perished from hunger and cold during the winters of 1777 and 1778. Inadequate pay prompted mutinies in the ranks and in the officer corps as late as 1783. The Continental Army had to struggle to survive during the entire war.

    "If inadequate support was one weakness of the Continental Army, its composition was another. The army was a new creation, without tradition or even military experience. Trained militiamen wanted to serve in local units near their farms and families, so raw recruits formed the basis of the Continental forces. Muster rolls for troops commanded by General William Smallwood of Maryland show that they were either poor American-born youths or older foreign-born men, often former indentured servants. Some of these men enlisted out of patriotic fervor; many more signed up to receive a cash bonus and the promise of a future land grant.

    "It took time to turn such men into loyal soldiers. Many panicked in the heat of battle. Others deserted, unwilling to accept the discipline of military life. Given this weak army, Washington worried constantly that he would suffer an overwhelming defeat.

    "In total, the war lasted for eight years and had four phases, each with a distinct strategy and character. During the first phase, from April 1775 to July 1776, the Patriots’ goal was to turn the revolt into an organized rebellion, while British governors and armed Loyalists tried to suppress the uprising. The second phase of the war began with a major British invasion of New York in July 1776 and ended with the American victory at Saratoga in October 1777. The British strategy was to confront and defeat the Continental Army and to isolate the radical Patriots of New England. Washington’s goal was to protect his weak forces by retreat and, when he held the advantage, to counterattack. During the third phase of the war Britain tried to subdue the South. Beginning in early 1778 it used regular troops to take territory and local Loyalists to hold it. Patriots used guerrilla warfare to weaken British forces, and then used French assistance to win a major victory at Yorktown, Virginia, in October 1781. Then came the final phase of the war when astute Patriot diplomacy won a treaty recognizing the independence of the United States in September 1783."

Sources
The Everything American Revolution Book by Daniel P. Murphy, Ph.D. (2008) F+W Publications, Inc., MA.

Our Country, Published in 1877 as "A Household History of the United States for All Readers," From the Discovery of America to the Present Time. Volume Two, By Benson J. Lossing, LL.D., (3 vols. New York: Johnson & Bailey, 1894)

The American Revolution: First Phase, Extracted from: American Military History, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, DC 1989

The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783, Extracted from: American Military History, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, DC 1989

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2009



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